International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in New York in 1966. It includes a great part of the Fundamental Rights recognized internationally in its 53 articles, amongst them:
the right of all people to self-determination, the equality before the law, the non-discrimination rights (sex, religion, race and so on) and the freedom rights in any of its aspect.
All the laws of the signing states should respect the Fundamental Rights included in the Convenant. In case that any of them is violated, it can be defended before the judicial authorities, first in the internal scope of each state and once you have lodged all possible appeals, before the Human Rights Committee.
I want to highlight an aspect that I think is important. The interference from the authorities in the Fundamental Rights requires some specific requirements. That means, in order for a state to be able to violate a Fundamental Right it is neccesary that:
- It is envisaged in a law (in a wide sense: any rule annouce by a relevant office).
- It must be considered neccesary in a democratical society.
- It cannot be conflicting with law and order.
- It must be proportional to the pursued aim.
- Fundamental Rights of the rest of the people should be safeguarded.